All posts in “Artigos”

The American Express Card and The ‘Successful Nothings’

The American Express (Amex) commercial featuring Luciano Pavarotti was launched in 1986 and was part of the Portraits campaign that included commercials and photographs of celebrities in a more ‘down to earth’ situation (Stanfel, 2000). The commercial itself is divided in two parts: the first part shows Pavarotti leading the Columbus Day parade in New York and the second part shows a thirty-second statement in which he talks about his private life and how he sees himself:

What am I? Am I successful or am I famous? That I don’t know, I don’t care. I know that people recognize me in the streets – very good. But I have three daughters and one wife and when I am at home, I know exactly who I am. Nothing – exactly zero. But I am happy. (ILoveTobin, 2008)

The commercial ends with the voiceover: ‘Even successful nothings carry the American Express card – Maybe you Should Apply’. (ILoveTobin, 2008)

AmEx had a wide target audience (males and females, aged 18 to 54) and the media of the campaign was composed by printed ads and television commercials. One of Amex aims was to be associated with the ‘brightest ones’ (special editions of Fortune magazine in 1987 and a section of Time magazine in 1989 contained only Amex ads). Additionally mass-circulation magazines (Sports Illustrated, People, Time and Newsweek) and high-profile events such as the 1990 SuperBowl and the 1991 Grammy Awards, were the vehicles selected for running the campaign (Stanfel, 2000). Massive investments in production, including the contract of Annie Leibovitz as the official photographer of the campaign plus the diverse celebrities (Stanfel, 2000) were also part of the brand’s strategy. Amex Portraits campaign can be seen not just as a response to its competitors (Visa and Mastercard) but also as a way of influencing people to choose Amex when paying with the credit card, since this method of payment started to became more usual at the time (Stanfel, 2000). It was more about being part of Amex club, than making the financial transaction itself, as the headline was ‘membership has its privileges’ (Lane, 2007). Overall, Amex wanted to attract new consumers and reinforce their image with the existing ones (Stanfel, 2000). Read More

A era do marketing ‘sob demanda’: revisando algumas teorias

Em um sentido geral, entende-se por marketing um conjunto de atividades que ligam empresa e cliente através do ato de troca em que ambos os lados saiam satisfeitos (GABRIEL; BEKIN; OGDEN; LUPETI), e de acordo com Bekin (2003), a troca precisa ser de natureza recíproca para que o relacionamento entre ambas as partes se mantenha. Assim, o marketing como atividade humana consegue satisfazer as necessidades e desejos do público-alvo. Gabriel (2010, P. 30) escreve que a necessidade é uma característica essencial e comum do ser humano enquanto que o desejo varia e é moldado pela sociedade e cultura em que se vive. Invariavelmente é uma tarefa complexa, pois, segundo Lupetti (2006, p.6), faz parte da gestão estratégica da organização, tendo a função de interligar e integrar todos os processos da empresa: as ações e tomada de decisão devem ser pensadas de forma sistemática, ou seja, levando em conta os objetivos da organização como um todo e não divida em partes.  Read More

User Generated Content: a critical discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of UGC on advertising campaigns.

This essay presents a critical discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of UGC on advertising campaigns. Examples of different UGC definitions will be given and current advantages and disadvantages will be described and supported through the example of three advertising campaigns: the competitive TV campaign Apple’s Mac vs PC; the #McDStory Tweeter campaign that was forced to shut down only two hours after its launch and the case of Farm, a fashion brand from Rio de Janeiro which develops its communication almost entirely online. A few other examples are given to support the advantages and disadvantages described.

In this age of recommendation, word of mouth has informed business and campaigns into becoming worldwide phenomenons or the contrary: to disrupt just a few hours after their launch (Rand, 2014). According to Ziegler (2011) research of non-chinese women who started million-dollar businesses in Hong Kong, the majority of the successful entrepreneurs invested their communication budgets in word of mouth; from contracting Public Relations agencies, persuading close friends or by simply developing a ‘neighborhood newsletter’. Moreover, Kevin Roberts, CEO of Saatchi and Saatchi woldwide, said that the concept of the ‘big idea’ is gone; marketing should inspire people, create movement; and interaction is key once ROI should be about Return of Involvement (Draycott, 2012). In a very short period of time, Internet has changed the way we work, socialize, travel and buy. Companies changed by being more present in social media and by infiltrating themselves into the conversation. No longer the perception of the brand is only property of the firm, it is also of us, consumers, and seasonal campaigns hardly create the same involvement as a funny video or a tweet posted at the right moment.

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